Define Communicable Diseases: Types, Causes, Symptoms and Prevention

The threat of communicable diseases is constantly on the rise. For decades, these diseases have taken numerous lives and distressed the societies as well as economy.  These diseases can lead to disorder various body functions badly. As the name indicates, these diseases can be spread from one human being to another. Also, it can be spread through infected animals. The contamination can spread through air, water, surface, touch and other ways.


There are many types of communicable diseases and can be separated into various categories, including –

  • Contact Transmitted: – Transmitted by insects such as pediculosis, bed bugs, mites and more.
  • Sexually Transmitted: –  HIV/AIDS, yellow fever, relapsing fever and filariasisn, etc.
  • Transmitted through Oral Contamination: –  Food poisoning, poliomyelitis and cholera, etc.
  • Helminthic diseases: –  Caused by helminths or parasitic worms, such as Ascariasis, enterobiasis, hookworm, etc.
  • Air borne diseases:  Sensitive respiratory infections, meningitis, and tuberculosis, etc.

Some common diseases are –

  • Common Cold,
  • Gastroenteritis,
  • Gonorrhea,
  • Pink Eye,
  • Hepatitis,
  • HIV/ AIDS,
  • Rotavirus,
  • Chlamydia,
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B


Communicable Diseases are caused by pathogens and easily transferred from a contaminated person to a healthy one. Some common pathogens are fungi, bacteria, parasites and viruses. However, all the conditions caused by pathogens are not transmissible. Pollution and lack of sanitation are other important reasons behind these conditions. The pathogens discharge the noxious products which interfere in the key metabolic ways of our body and consequently, put off the body from proper functioning.


Each communicable disease has some special symptoms and signs. But, we have listed some common symptoms –

  • Cough, sneezing, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, restiveness, blocked nose and weakness are common symptoms of Influenza.
  • Itchiness, fatigue, and fever, etc. are some signs of Chickenpox
  • Abdomen pain, vomits, nausea, abdomen are signs of Gastroenteritis.
  • Acute conjunctivitis comes with redness in eyes, and watery eyes, etc.
  • Symptoms of flu are fever, headache, and tiredness.
  • Hepatitis A symptoms are nuisance, loss of craving, nauseated feeling and weakness
  • The signs and symptoms of mumps are fever, swelling and softness of the salivary glands

Some other symptoms are –

  • Diarrhea
  • Bleeding
  • Muscle Palm
  • Skin rashes


Instead of going for treatment, it is far better to prevent the conditions responsible for sickness. The prevention of these health conditions must be started from childhood. It is a responsibility of parents to provide all vaccinations on time for the children to strengthen the immune system as the main reason behind most disease is weak immune system.

In order to control and avoid the risk of communicable diseases, it is crucial to take care of the hygiene. Proper sanitation, clean water, safe waste management, clean and safe food, and personal protection are some general preventive measures. Some diseases can be prevented through control of vectors and growth of insects.

Knowledge is power. Gather as much information as you can, to avoid the risks of these dangerous diseases.

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